Who’s Doing Good

10 November 2020 - 23 November 2020

THE GIVERS

Azim Premji tops EdelGive Hurun India Philanthropy List 2020. In addition, Premji is also recognized for being one of the world’s leading donors to Covid-19 relief efforts, with a combined donation of Rs1,125 crore (approximately US$152 million) from Wipro, Wipro Enterprises, and the Azim Premji Foundation. Shiv Nadar, founder-chairman of HCL, ranks second, followed by India’s richest man Mukesh Ambani, chairman of Reliance Industries. The list showcases a total of 112 people, whose combined donations increased by 175% to INR12,050 crore (approximately US$1.6 billion) in 2020.

Forbes Asia releases its 14th annual Heroes of Philanthropy list. While this year’s list is unranked and excludes donations made by companies, it shines a light on 15 individual philanthropists in the Asia-Pacific region. Some of this year’s biggest donors focused on the Covid-19 pandemic: Hong Kong’s Li Ka-Shing gave US$32 million to various aid initiatives and Japan’s Tadashi Yanai gave US$105 million to research and vaccine development. Other philanthropists, like Vietnam’s Pham Nhat Vuong, continued to contribute to causes such as education, alongside contributing to relief efforts.

THE THINKERS

Finding the way forward in post-Covid-19 Asia. Covid-19 has made it clear that governments, donors, and the social sector all have an indispensable role in helping societies build back stronger from the pandemic. CAPS’ Doing Good Index 2020 highlights the strengths and opportunities for 18 economies in Asia to build a more enabling environment for such philanthropy to reach the neediest. In our latest webinar series, CAPS’ Chief Executive Ruth Shapiro and Director of Research Mehvesh Mumtaz Ahmed share country-specific findings on PakistanIndiaKoreaMalaysiaNepal, and Hong Kong.

THE NONPROFITS

Educate Girls among the world’s 100 most inspiring innovations in K12 education. The nonprofit, which works for girls’ education in the remotest villages of India, has announced its selection in HundrED 2021 Global Collection—an annual list that highlights 100 of the most impactful innovations in K12 education from around the world. Educate Girls’ innovation was reviewed by 150 Academy Members consisting of academics, educators, innovators, funders, and leaders from over 50 countries. Since 2007, Educate Girls has enrolled over 750,000 girls in schools, improving learning outcomes for over 1.3 million children. The nonprofit is also well-known for spearheading the world’s first Development Impact Bond in education.

THE BUSINESSES

Interview with Jaime Augusto Zobel de Ayala on how businesses can be a force for good. In conversation with the McKinsey Quarterly, the chairman and CEO of Ayala Corporation discusses macro trends among businesses in Asia and how they’re responding to complex challenges during Covid-19. In the interview, Ayala describes his own learnings and how the Ayala Group responded to the pandemic by prioritizing its employees, upholding its broad ecosystem, and supporting the community at large, especially those most economically vulnerable. The Group also joined forces with other companies to support the government in meeting the immediate needs of communities—underscoring the importance of partnership at a time when both the will and resources required are beyond any one sector’s capacity to provide.

Social bonds strengthen foothold in Asia credit market. Globally, issuance of social bonds shot up more than five times to approximately US$105 billion as of October 2020. Amidst Covid-19, new debt is being increasingly redirected to social and sustainability bonds targeted at supporting rising public health needs and growing economic disparity. This is true in Asia, too, where distribution of social bonds rose 29% this year through June 15 from a year earlier. This augurs well for the region, where Asian governments and institutions have been slow to issue social bonds. Yet, this redirection comes at a cost: green bond issuance in Asia-Pacific in the second quarter of 2020 fell to its lowest level in more than three years.

THE INNOVATORS

The Australian Government and Macquarie Group Foundation support Filipina entrepreneurs. Together with the Macquarie Group Foundation, Australia is committing to an investment program of over P43 million (approximately US$900,000) to aid Filipino women who own small and medium enterprises (SMEs). The Responsive Interventions Supporting Entrepreneurs (RISE) Fund aims to help the Philippines build back better by supporting women-led SMEs. Australian ambassador to the Philippines stressed that Filipino women “will play a central role in the recovery from Covid-19 and should have an equal part in a more resilient, inclusive, and broad-based Philippines.”

ABAC Indonesia, Mandiri Capital join forces to invest in start-ups with social impact. APEC Business Advisory Council (ABAC) Indonesia, the private-sector arm of the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation, has partnered with venture capital firm Mandiri Capital to launch a new fund that will invest in startups with social impact. The Indonesia Impact Fund (IIF) will focus on investing in micro, small, and medium enterprises (MSMEs) and start-ups related to five of the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs): poverty alleviation, sustainable cities and affordable housing, high-quality and accessible education, increased economic participation for women, and affordable health care. The firm aims to raise US$10 million in assets under management by its first close of funding in the second quarter of 2021.

We’d also like to hear from you. How is your organization responding to Covid-19? Email us your stories at research@caps.org.

Webinar: Asia Society Hong Kong Center Program Charting the Path Forward

Catching the world unaware, Covid-19 has sent the global economy and the lives of billions into a tailspin. In the wake of this pandemic, the public, private, and social sectors must come together to work towards a stronger and more equitable Asia as we build our way out of this crisis. At a time when foreign funding is declining across the region, “Asia for Asia” philanthropy must fill the gap—and the Doing Good Index shows how.

CAPS’ Co-Founder and Chief Executive Ruth Shapiro and Director of Research Mehvesh Mumtaz Ahmed present the key findings of the index and showcase how governments, philanthropists, companies and the social sector can work together for mutual benefit. This discussion was moderated by Ronnie C. Chan, Co-Founder and Chairman of CAPS and Chairman of Asia Society Hong Kong Center.

Interview: Ruth Shapiro on the Doing Good Index 2020

CAPS’ Co-Founder and Chief Executive Ruth Shapiro shares insights from the second edition of the biennial Doing Good Index, launched in June 2020.

 

Insights with Mehvesh Mumtaz Ahmed: Doing Good Index 2020

CAPS’ Director of Research Mehvesh Mumtaz Ahmed shares insights from the second edition of the biennial Doing Good Index, launched in June 2020.

Webinar: Doing Good Index 2020

Profiling Asia's Social Sector: The Path Forward

The Centre for Asian Philanthropy and Society (CAPS) introduces its second edition of the Doing Good Index (DGI). Hear from Dr. Ruth Shapiro, Co-Founder and Chief Executive, and Mehvesh Mumtaz Ahmed, Director of Research at CAPS, as they present key findings from the DGI2020 and showcase how governments, philanthropists, companies and the social sector can work together for mutual benefit. During the webinar, learn which factors enable or hinder private social investment across 18 countries and territories in Asia.

Who’s Doing Good?

8 June 2020 - 21 June 2020

THE GIVERS

Singaporeans donated SG$90 million in first five months of 2020, equal to whole of last year’s donations. From January to May of this year, SG$90 million (approximately US$64 million) was donated to the Community Chest, the Community Foundation of Singapore’s Sayang Sayang Fund, and through the online donation platform Giving.sg. This amount was around the same as the total donations received by the Community Chest and Giving.sg in the entire year of 2019, according to a joint statement by the Ministry of Culture, Community and Youth and Ministry of Social and Family Development.

17th China Philanthropy Ranking released. The 17th edition of the annual China Philanthropy Ranking, supported by China’s Ministry of Civil Affairs and the China Charity Times, was released on June 16. This year’s ranking includes 118 philanthropists with a total of ¥5.45036 billion (approximately US$771 million) in donations, and 605 companies with a total of ¥1.245 trillion (approximately US$176 billion) in donations.

THE THINKERS

GIIN’s 2020 Annual Impact Investor Survey released. The Global Impact Investing Network (GIIN) released the 10th edition of its flagship report, which provides an overview of the global impact investing market. This report includes an updated market sizing analysis—estimating the current market size at US$715 billion—trends analysis, and insights on topics such as climate investing, the evolution of impact measurement, and policy developments over the past decade. CAPS’ recent study, Business for Good: maximizing the value of social enterprises in Asia, points out that impact investment in Asia is not yet living up to its full potential. While Asia accounts for nearly 50% of global GDP, GIIN’s latest report finds that only 14% of global impact investment is allocated to the region.

CEO of Singapore’s NVPC argues corporate giving during Covid-19 more than just a PR exercise. Melissa Kwee, CEO of the National Volunteer and Philanthropy Centre (NVPC), highlights examples of corporate efforts amidst Covid-19 that aligned a company’s purpose and expertise to enable more strategic giving. She cites Temasek, which leveraged its supply chain networks to provide hand sanitizers to all Singaporean households, and the Singapore Metal & Machinery Association, which mobilized a donation of 3,800 sets of PPEs. Kwee states that this is a step up from past CSR efforts that can sometimes be peripheral to the business or more reactive activities that lack a larger strategic intent.

THE BUSINESSES

Covid-19 covers 80% of CSR budget for India Inc., according to Crisil Foundation. According to the Foundation, CSR spending thus far has been in the form of contributions to the PM CARES Fund and other relief funds, as well as distribution of food, PPE, and other relief supplies to the needy. The Foundation’s chief operating officer stated, “Interestingly, the 130 companies analyzed by Crisil accounted for nearly 80% of the total CSR spend by all listed companies in fiscal 2019. Assuming other companies would have followed a similar path, India Inc. has already allocated over 80% of the annual CSR budget to address the pandemic. This could impact spending on other areas this fiscal year.”

ASEAN and The Asia Foundation, with support from Google.org, collaborate to equip 200,000 micro and small enterprises with digital skills and tools amidst the Covid-19 crisis. The ASEAN Coordinating Committee on Micro, Small and Medium Enterprises and The Asia Foundation have jointly launched ‘Go Digital ASEAN,’ supported by a US$3.3 million grant from Google’s philanthropic arm. The initiative will focus on expanding economic opportunities across ASEAN member states and mitigating the negative impact from the Covid-19 crisis. It aims to close the digital divide by equipping micro and small enterprises, as well as underemployed youth in rural and isolated areas, with crucial digital skills and tools.

Largest donation for Philippines’ fight against Covid-19 came from Project Ugnayan of the Philippine Disaster Resilience Foundation (PDRF) at US$29.1 million. PDRF, the Philippines’ major private sector vehicle and coordinator for disaster management, has made the largest contribution to the government’s Covid-19 response to date: US$29.1 million. The next biggest donors to the government’s relief efforts are USAID, San Miguel Corporate, and Unilab. Ayala Group, which took an active part in Project Ugnayan, has set forth an array of other relief efforts to tackle Covid-19 in the Philippines. Recently, Ayala Group donated an automated RNA Extraction machine and two RT-PCR machines to Southern Philippines Medical Center and other institutions, which will help Davao boost its testing capacity to a maximum of 1,000 tests per day.

Tzu Chi Foundation Indonesia raised Rupiah 500 billion (approximately US$36 million) towards fighting Covid-19. The six biggest donors to the Foundation’s Covid-19 initiative were Sinarmas, Djarum, Indofood, Astra, Agung Sedayu Group, and Artha Graha Peduli. The funds will be used to purchase various equipment needed to help handle the outbreak in Indonesia.

Excelerate Energy has become the key sponsor of the HOPE Foundation for Women and Children of Bangladesh to support the organization’s Covid-19 relief efforts at the Rohingya camp outside Cox’s Bazar in Bangladesh—home to more than a million refugees. The US company’s donation will provide up to 10,000 patients a year with outpatient and in-patient services, diagnostics, critical care, emergency transportation. It will also fund PPE for staff and surrounding community, staff training, and awareness programs.

Mastercard builds on Covid-19 response with commitment to expand financial inclusion initiative. The new commitment—an extension of Mastercard’s 2015 pledge to bring 500 million excluded people into the financial system—will bring a total of 1 billion people and 50 million micro- and small- businesses worldwide into the digital economy by 2025. This article shares examples of Mastercard’s financial inclusion initiatives in Bangladesh, Cambodia, India, Indonesia, Thailand, and Vietnam.

American Express India has pledged INR 9 crores (approximately US$1.2 million) towards Covid-19 relief efforts. This includes contributions to the PM CARES Fund and nonprofits working in Covid-19 relief areas—such as mobilizing essential supplies, providing medical kits, feeding healthcare professionals, and developing and providing PPE to vulnerable communities. American Express India has also partnered in an initiative called ‘Hunger Heroes’ that will help distribute dry rations and essential supplies to the families of 10,000 food delivery riders impacted by the pandemic.

PwC Singapore launches new initiatives to support the community amidst Covid-19. The company is releasing “Digital Fitness for the World,” a learning app aimed at increasing digital acumen and upskilling, to the public for free from June 8 onwards. PwC is also working to help small and medium enterprises accelerate digitization with dedicated digital advisory services, solutions, and upskilling programs. Other Covid-19 initiatives from PwC include purchasing and distributing food to vulnerable communities.

THE INNOVATORS

Indonesia-based e-sports company helping fight Covid-19 through streaming, direct action. EVOS Sports, which operates across Southeast Asia, has initiated a number of efforts, including streaming matches and collaborating with influencers and social delivery organizations, to give back. For example, in Malaysia, EVOS Sports’ PUBG Mobile team played matches among themselves over a livestream and encouraged viewers to contribute to the “Give with Ikhlas” charity initiative, which has raised RM1 million (approximately US$230,000) so far. In Thailand and Indonesia, EVOS Sports’ athletes have also stepped on the ground to cook 3,000 meals for the underprivileged and donate 50,000 masks and surgical gloves.

We’d also like to hear from you. How is your organization responding to Covid-19? Email us your stories at research@caps.org

Doing Good Index 2020

Profiling Asia's Social Sectors: The Path Forward

The Doing Good Index 2020 lays bare the vital role of the social sector and how the right policies and practices can unleash an enormous US$587 billion per year towards it.

In the wake of Covid-19, the public, private, and social sectors must come together to work towards a stronger and more equitable Asia as we build our way out of this crisis. At a time when foreign funding is declining across the region, “Asia for Asia” philanthropy must fill the gap—and the Doing Good Index shows how. It provides a roadmap of the policies and practices that can unleash this capital by aligning incentives around doing good; mitigating the trust deficit; and maximizing private social investment flowing to the social sector.

The Index has increased its coverage from 15 Asian economies in 2018 index to a total of 18: Bangladesh, Cambodia, China, Hong Kong, India, Indonesia, Japan, Korea, Malaysia, Myanmar, Nepal, Pakistan, Philippines, Singapore, Sri Lanka, Taiwan, Thailand and Vietnam. It is based on original data gathered through surveying 2,189 social delivery organizations and interviewing 145 country experts across all 18 economies.

The Doing Good Index 2020 offers a way forward for governments, as well as private and corporate donors to meet the imperatives of building a vibrant social sector for a brighter Asian future. It is with great excitement that we bring you this second edition to help plot the way forward in a post-Covid-19 world. The next edition of the Index, planned for 2022, will reveal how these economies have fared following the Covid-19 pandemic.

View our press release and watch the video presentation from our public webinar.

Doing Good Index Microsite

Interact with the data on our newly launched Doing Good Index microsite. Featuring a data dashboard, our microsite lets you filter and explore data from our survey of 2,189 social delivery organizations (SDOs) and interviews with 145 country experts across 18 Asian economies.

Responding to Covid-19: Who’s Doing Good?

14 April 2020 - 20 April 2020

THE GIVERS
Individuals are funding initiatives that support nonprofits and hard-hit communities.

Laurence Lien, Singapore philanthropist, and his family donated SG$2 million earlier this month to aid 17 charities in Singapore affected by Covid-19. 

Adrian Cheng, executive vice-chairman of New World Development, launched a new Covid-19 initiative that will install 35 “Mask To Go” dispensers at designated NGOs in all 18 districts across Hong Kong. NGOs will provide contactless “Mask Redemption Cards” to pre-registered low-income families and disadvantaged groups. The dispensers will begin to operate by the end of April.

THE THINKERS
Organizations are collecting data to better understand the impact of Covid-19 on nonprofits and communities.

BRAC, the world’s largest nonprofit based in Bangladesh, published the findings from its Rapid Perception Survey on Covid-19 Awareness and Economic Impact survey of 2,675 individuals in Bangladesh. Among other key findings, the survey shows that the average household income is down 75% from the previous month, and that 96% of households are not receiving any government support.

Management and Sustainable Development Institute (MSD) launched its latest report, The effects of Covid-19 pandemic on civil society organizations in Vietnam. The study surveyed 101 organizations, with almost all (96%) reporting that their operations have been impacted as a result of the outbreak. Click here for the Vietnamese version.

THE NONPROFITS
Charities are stepping up their operations and joining forces to serve communities affected by Covid-19.

Hong Kong Jockey Club launched a number of initiatives to support those affected by Covid-19, earmarking HK$30 million (approximately US$4 million) for the distribution of more anti-epidemic packages to vulnerable groups, HS$42 million (approximately US$5.5 million) to provide free mobile internet data to underprivileged students to facilitate online learning, and a HK$50 million (approximately US$6.5 million) top-up its “Covid-19 Emergency Fund.”

The Asia Foundation is refocusing its work to help battle Covid-19 and support disproportionately impacted communities. For example, the foundation is expanding access to its “Let’s Read” library, Asia’s only free digital and multilingual library for children, to help improve access to education materials at a time when 9 out of 10 children in the world are out of school. Read more about the foundation’s other relief efforts, such as those in Myanmar, Pakistan, and Nepal here

International Justice Mission (IJM) has expanded rescue and awareness operations in response to issues exacerbated by Covid-19 in India and the Philippines, including online child trafficking and increased violence during lockdowns. IJM is also working with governments to provide food support, offer hand-washing trainings, and raise awareness about the virus.

A number of organizations in Pakistan are providing direct healthcare services to communities in need. This includes Indus Health Network, Alkhidmat Foundation, Kashmir Orphan Relief Trust, Patients’ Aid Foundation, and Ghurki Trust Teaching Hospital.

THE BUSINESSES
Companies are contributing to Covid-19 relief efforts and donating medical supplies, food and beverages, and other staples to affected communities. Some companies, such as Alibaba and ByteDance, are expanding their portfolio of response efforts with new initiatives.

B.Grimm, one of Thailand’s leading conglomerates, recently launched “B.Grimm Fights Covid-19 with Compassion” and donated over 46 million baht (nearly US$2 million) to relief efforts. Donations from the company have gone to hospitals and a number of charities in Thailand.

Oishi Group, a subsidiary of ThaiBev, launched the “Oishi Gives to Fight against Covid-19.” Through this campaign, the company is donating cash as well as food and beverages through the Thai Red Cross Society, which has totaled 24 million baht (approximately US$800,000) to date.

CP Group has donated more than US$29 million in Thailand to tackle Covid-19 and provided free food delivery to 88 hospitals across Thailand. Additionally, CEO Suphachai Chearavanont announced that the Group is committed to not making layoffs across the Group worldwide, will cover employee medical expenses, provide food to quarantined employees, and provide education loans for their employees’ children.

Carousell, one of the world’s largest digital marketplaces, launched “Covid-19 Free Ads for Charity,” among other response efforts. This initiative will offer up to SG$2 million (approximately US$1.4 million) of its advertising inventories for nonprofits in Singapore, Malaysia, Hong Kong, and the Philippines helping affected communities. The initiative aims to help nonprofits gain more visibility and access to volunteers and potential donors.

DBS Bank pledged SG$10.5 million (approximately US$7.5 million) to help communities affected by Covid-19, both in Singapore and across the region. The DBS Stronger Together Fund will provide around 4.5 million meals and packages containing food and staples to affected individuals in Singapore, Hong Kong, China, India, Indonesia, and Taiwan. In Singapore, DBS is partnering with two local nonprofits in a SG$2.5 million (approximately US$1.8 million) plan to provide food for the elderly, low-income, and migrant workers.

Alibaba Group has published a factsheet, listing all of the donations and relief efforts of both the Jack Ma Foundation and Alibaba Foundation to date. The foundations also shared a coronavirus prevention and treatment handbook—available in 23 languages—which offers key insights from doctors, health care workers, and hospital administrators at the First Affiliated Hospital, Zhejiang University School of Medicine, who were at the frontline of the outbreak in China.

ByteDance recently published an overview of its Covid-19 response initiatives, categorized by country. Examples include contributions to Covid-19 relief funds, donating medical equipment, and creating online, multi-lingual training modules to help educate health workers around the globe.

Tsinghua University and China Vanke Co have joined together to establish the Vanke School of Public Health, aiming to boost talent training and scientific research and enhance China’s capacities in public health management. A special fund was set up with a donation of 200 million Vanke shares, valued at around 5.3 billion yuan (US$748 million) to the Tsinghua University Education Foundation. The former director-general of the World Health Organization (WHO), Margaret Chan Fung Fu-chun, was named the inaugural dean of the school. China Vanke and Dalian Wanda Commercial Management have also teamed up for a combined US$225 million in funding initiatives to help people affected by Covid-19.

Ping An Insurance Company donated US$1.5 million worth of Covid-19 medical supplies and technology to Indonesia. This includes medical technology that can generate accurate and rapid analysis of CT scans. This smart image-reading system has provided services to more than 1,500 medical institutions in China, including Hubei Province, and has assisted doctors with analysis in over a million CT scans for more than 20,000 patients. Earlier, Ping An donated more than US$20 million worth of supplies and cash in China, among a number of other donations and initiatives aimed at fighting the coronavirus outbreak in China.

Korean companies that conduct business in India are donating to help the country’s fight against Covid-19. Examples include: Samsung India, Hyundai Motor, and LG Electronics.

Pakistan’s Prime Minister Relief Fund for Covid-19 saw a commitment of Rs100 million (approximately US$700,00) from English Biscuits Manufacturers (EBM) and Rs50 million from Telenor (approximately US$300,000). Telenor has also pledged PKR1.6 billion (approximately US$10 million) in cash and supplies towards Covid-19 relief efforts. Jazz, the Pakistani telecommunications company, has also contributed PKR50 million (approximately US$300,000) to the PM Pandemic Relief Fund, part of the company’s total pledge of PKR1.2 billion (approximately US$7.5 million) for Covid-19 relief efforts.

PepsiCo Foundation pledged US$700,000 in grants to support the response efforts of nonprofits certified by the Pakistan Centre for Philanthropy (PCP), operating in more than 30 districts across Pakistan. Through its certification and Advised Grant Making services, PCP helps identify nonprofits with high standards of governance, financial management, and operations, building donor confidence and facilitating the deployment of funding. PepsiCo India, along with PepsiCo Foundation, is also providing 25,000 Covid-19 testing kits and over 5 million meals to support families impacted by the coronavirus outbreak in India.

Airbnb is partnering with the Philippine Disaster Resilience Foundation (PDRF) to expand its global Frontline Stays to the Philippines—an initiative to provide housing to 100,000 Covid-19 responders and relief workers. PDRF, together with partner hospitals, will help identify priority areas and healthcare workers in need of temporary housing.

THE TRUSTBREAKERS 

In this section, we usually share stories about scandals that are having negative repercussions for the social sector. With the fear and anxiety surrounding Covid-19, there are some trust-breaking stories circulating from price-gouging to faulty medical supplies. Fortunately, the stories of people being constructive during these times far outnumber them. We look forward to bringing more of these positive stories to you in the coming weeks.

RESOURCES

India Development Review analyzed a total of 75 resource announcements from the CSR community in India during the Covid-19 crisis. Combined, these contributions total more than ₹4,124 crore (nearly US$550 million). Of these, 89% is earmarked towards relief work, and of this, 54% is directed towards the Prime Minister’s PM-CARES Fund or state Chief Minister Relief funds.

Thank you to all the individuals and institutions stepping up to help fight Covid-19. Watch CEEW India’s #SupportYourSuperheroes video thanking the unknown heroes working to ensure the health and safety of their communities.

We’d also like to hear from you. How is your organization responding to Covid-19? Email us your stories at research@caps.org

The Effects of COVID-19 Pandemic on Civil Society Organizations (CSOs) in Vietnam

Management and Sustainable Development Institute (MSD)

This report provides an overview of the impact of Covid-19 on the social sector in Vietnam. It is based on a survey of 101 civil society organizations (CSO) conducted between 31 March and 10 April 2020. Almost all (96%) of CSOs report their operations are impacted as a result of the outbreak. Mobilizing funds and coordinating with others in the social sector has become more difficult. Some CSOs are adapting to be able to continue supporting their beneficiaries. Recommendations for how stakeholders can support CSOs during and after this outbreak are also discussed. Read it here: English, Vietnamese.

The Palgrave Handbook of Global Philanthropy

Palgrave Macmillan

This publication is a comprehensive guide to the philanthropic sectors of 26 economies, including China, Hong Kong, Indonesia, Japan, Korea, Taiwan and Vietnam. It provides an overview of the landscape of giving, the role that government and religion play, fiscal incentives, and the legal policies that shape philanthropic giving. It also seeks to understand what motivates individuals to give and why the level of giving varies across countries. Read it here.